There are several interesting paradigms in how science is practiced today. I can really only speak to the US, but since international science is based on the American model, we can say that some of these particularities are generally true. There are three main ways that scientific discoveries are reported and all are subject to some level of peer review: articles in journals, conferences, and patents. The first two are far and away are much more important in terms of discoveries and knowledge acquired.

Now, most research is federally funded, especially non-applied research. You just can’t rely on capitalism to fund basic research; the pay off isn’t consistent enough or on a short enough timescale, although the rewards are demonstrable down the road.

So, that being the case, the most prestigious journals are a pay to play sort of thing. A subscription to Science, on of most prestigious (and highest retraction rate–d’oh!) journals costs the individual $146 per year. And that’s if you’re a scientist. If, God forbid, you are an interested civilian, a yearly subscription to Science is $310. To stay abreast of all the federally funded research that gets published, you would have to pay quite a lot of money per year, and yet it’s your tax money that is going into this enterprise. Seem fair? No? You’re right, it’s not. It sucks, actually. I’ve even had collaborators at other universities ask me to send them PDFs of articles because their institution can’t afford the subscription.

Now, there have been various efforts to rectify this. One of the more revolutionary ideas is open access journals, like PLoS and the Frontiers series of journals. They put all the burden to publish on the authors (to be fair, PNAS does this too). Not meaning that there’s no peer review, but rather, the cost of publishing is borne by the authors, not the readers. NPG (Nature Publishing Group) recently acquired the Frontiers journal series, which perhaps lends some more legitimacy to the whole enterprise, or at least an indication that open acces is here to stay. An even greater indication of this is that the Obama administration released a memo via the OSTP, which calls for all agencies that fund more than $100 million in extramural research to make all publications available within a year of publication along with any unclassified, federally-funded research. This is pretty huge, and reflective of greater cultural changes, I think. We have been increasingly insistent on greater transparency in government and science. Obama was practically elected on a platform of greater transparency and then WikiLeaks happened (along with Manning and Snowden), not to mention the plagiarism suspicions/instances that are now rampant in the scientific community (there’s a whole website dedicated to retractions!).

Policy changes like this are part of a greater shift towards transparency that was, in part, brought about by the internet and all the data that anybody can access. There are a group of scientists that are dedicated to opening up science in general–making lab notebooks available, encouraging citizen scientists, and overall increasing transparency. I actually think this is a great idea. I know that in highly competitive fields, this level of transparency is anathema to getting to be the first one to publish something, but nobody says you can’t delay publicizing your lab notebooks. Maybe if more of the day to day grind of science were made available, we wouldn’t have so many drugs getting pulled off the market, and people might appreciate how difficult doing science actually is. Or I’m a total idealist and opening up data will just result in a kerfuffle like publication of some of the climate science data did. If you’re interested in this idea of opening up lab notebooks, the folks over at are hosting a free online course/discussion group to get this going.

So is there a happy ending with the OSTP memo? Actually, yes. The American Association of Publishers has announced CHORUS, which stands for ClearingHouse for Open Research of the United States. It basically takes advantage of existing infrastructure via CrossRef and puts all of those publications that are federally funded under a 1 year embargo, after which the article goes open access. This is the publisher’s solution the the memo, but doesn’t necessarily reflect its final form, which will require some changes in the federal agencies themselves (especially after some recent debate in Congress). Overall, I think it’s a revolutionary step forward. What remains to be seen is also what happens with publishers (like NPG) who have not signed on to CHORUS and are not US-based.